૩ કેન્સર અંગે ચરક અને સુશ્રૂત સંહીતા

                                       CANCER IN ANCIENT INDIA 


We reproduce here extremely important excerpts from ancient Indian medical scriptures Charak Samhita (Ch.) and Sushruta Nidanastahan [Su.Ni.]. All the slokas are enclosed in boxes.The compilation, translaCtion and interpretation has been made by Dr. Heema Seth an Ayurveda consultant of Mumbai.  (
 
“Gatra pradeshe kwachidev doshaaha 

sammurchhita mansamasruk pradushya. 
           Vruttam sthiram mandrujam  
mahantamanalpmulam chirvruddhyapakam.  
Kurvanti mansocchrayamatyagaadham  
Tadarbudam shastravido vadanti.[ Su.Ni. 11]
Due to vitiation of the flesh and blood by deranged and aggravated Doshas (vayu, pitta and kapha) a large vegetation of flesh appears at any part of the body which becomes rounded, immovable, slightly painful and has its root considerably deep in the flesh (affected part ).This growth is termed as ARBUD by the learned physicians.
 
Rogaschotsedh samanyaadhimansarbudadayaha [Ch.]
Arbud (tumor) is a disease in which swelling (utsedh) is a common feature.
Origin of word Arbud
Aram-sheeghram – (which is fast) bundati-gyapayati- (appearing) mansocchrayam-(originating in flesh)-swarupam-gatrapradeshe-(in body)-sammurchhitai-doshairrmansasruk-pradushanad- (formed due to deranged blood n flesh) yat-tad-arbudam (is termed as arbudam)
Urbundara nishamne,mulvibhujadeeh,prushodaradisch yadva arbati-gachhati gatrapradeshe-kutrapi-yad arb gatau(one which has a pervading , omnipresent/potent deep seated root in the  body) – Udach; yadva-arbudgirisadrusham (raised like a mountain)  vruttakaram sthiram mahad analpmulam (rounded, immobile, large, deep spreaded root) cha yattjayate-tatsadrushyad idamapi.                                                                                        
Types of Arbud
Vaaten pitten kaphen vaapi rakten mansen cha medsa va.  [Su.Ni.11]
In ayurvedic texts,arbud is described of six types on the basis of origin of derangement of doshas and vitiation of blood, flesh and fat.
Of the above mentioned,mansaj and raktaj are considered to be Ghatak(malignant). They are incurable(asadhya)And rest of them are considered as Saumya(benign) [ref:Ch.] These are slow growing(cheer vruddhi)and do not metastasize(aprasaranshil), encapsulated (Vipatya chodhrrotya bhishak sakosham shastren daghdhwa vranvat – excision along with the capsule and cauterize like a wound) [Ch.Chi.12]                       
Rakta-arbud
Doshaha pradusto rudhiram shirastu
sampidya sankochya gatastu pakam.
               Sasraavamannuhyati manspindam
               mansankurrairachittamaashuvruddhim.
Sravatyajasram  rudhiram
pradustamasadhyametadrudhiratmak syat
 Raktakshayopdravpeedittvaat pandurbhavetpeeditastu. [Su.Ni.]
The deranged doshas (vaayu, pittam, kapha) contracting and compressing the vessels (sira) and blood (rudhir) of affected part, raise a slightly suppurated (paakam) exuding tumor covered with small warts and fleshy tubercles and is called as Raktarbuda. This tumor is rapid in its growth, exuding a constant flow of vitiated blood. It is considered incurable (asadhya) due to its origin in blood. The patient looks pale and yellow because of disturbance and depletive actions due to hemorrhage.                                                                                                   
Mansa-arbud
Mushtipraharadibhirardite ange
manspradustam prakaroti shofam.
               Avedanam snigdhamananyavarnam
              apakamashmopmamaprachalyam.
Pradustmansasya narasya
 baaddhmetanbhavenmans parayansya.
             Mansarbudam tvetadasadhyamuktam.
When flesh of any part of body gets vitiated due to external irritation like blows,etc, it gives rise to swelling(shofam) called as Mansarbuda. It is painless, glossy, of same color as the surrounding, non suppurating, stony hard and immobile. If such a tumor appears in a person addicted to meat diet (mansparayan), the tumor (mansarbud) gets deep seated due to consequent vitiation of bodily flesh (mans). As per Susruta  this is incurable tumor.                                                                                                                                                       
Prognosis (sadhyasadhyatva):
Mansarbudam tu etad asadhyamuktam
sadhyeshvapeemani vivarjayet tu.
                  Samprasrutam marmani yaccha
                  jaatam srotasahsu va yaccha bhavedachalyam. [Su.Ni.11]
From the earlier stated curable types (vaataja, pittja,etc.),those which appear in any vital/vulnerable joint of the body or in any cavity(Srotas), channels or artery, characterized by any sort of exudation and are immobile, should be deemed incurable.
These are better left untreated.
Sheshe krute paakvashen shiryat
 tatah kshatotha prasaredvisarpah.
Updravam tampravicharya
                     Tajagyastairyabhaishajaih  purvatarai yathoktaihee [Ch.Chi. 12]
According to Charaka , if it is excised carelessly leaving even a small root in the body, then it starts proliferating and suppurating due to injury (kshat) and spreads on its own through blood vessels like visarp.
This can be compared to hemal dispersal of cancer  cells.                                                                   
Dwirarbud and Adhyarbud
   Yajjayte anyat khalu purvajaate
 gneyam tadadhyarbudagyeeh.
               Yat dwandwajaatam yugpat kramadwa
               dwirarbudam taccha bhaveasadhyam.

An arbudam  which crops up on the existing one is called as Adhyarbudam. A couple of contiguous arbuda (tumors) cropping up simultaneously or one after another is called Dwirarbudam. Both these types are considered incurable.

These can be compared to secondary tumors and metastasis.
Na pakamayati kapahadhikatvanmedo
 adhiktvat cha visheshastu.
 Doshsthirtvad grathanachha
                  tesham sarvarbudanyev nisargastu.[Su.Ni.11]
An arbuda never suppurates  owing to the exuberance of the deranged Kapha and fat as well as in consequence of the immobility, condensation and compactness of the deranged doshas(Vaayu, pitta, kapha) involved in it or out of a specific  trait of its own nature.
Treatment for sadhya (saumyarbudas):
  • Blood letting in vaataj arbud,
  • Cauterization by alkalis (dahan karma) in paittik arbud.
  • Kaphaja and Medoj arbud ) are to be treated surgically.If little tissue remains after surgery , it proliferates again.(Sasheshdoshani hi yo arbudani karoti tanyashu punarbhavati). This can be compared to neo canceration of normal cells after surgery.સૌજન્ય ડૉ મનુભાઇ કોઠારી
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